After the box office disappointment and mixed critical notices of Mars Attacks!
(1996), director Tim Burton returned to theaters in 1999 with the triumphant Sleepy Hollow
, a dark fairy tale powered by the pervasive millennial angst of the era.
Although the picture is set in the year 1799 rather than two centuries later, Sleepy Hollow nonetheless obsesses on roiling concerns regarding the future. Would it belong to science or to superstition, knowledge or mysticism? Would the future bring only a new dark age (Y2K) or the beginnings of paradise on Earth?
Widely recognized as an example of “gorgeous filmmaking
,” (Rolling Stone
), Sleepy Hollow
was lauded upon release for its lush production values and colorful, autumnal imagery. Stephanie Zacharek at Salon
, for instance, aptly termed the film a “visual seduction
That’s an excellent description, and a fine way of getting a good handle on the film’s persuasive charm, for Sleepy Hollow is both egregiously violent (heads DO roll) and a throwback to a less graphic era in horror history. It is dynamic and colorful in presentation and yet also strangely wistful, innocent and elegaic about the world it creates: the last spell perhaps, before science truly erases magic from existence
As I wrote in Horror Films of the 1990s, Tim Burton’s Sleepy Hollow opens with a droll visual joke that, in some fashion, very ably exemplifies the film’s nature. Perhaps this joke is one that only the longtime horror movie enthusiast will fully understand. As the film commences, what appears to be very fake-looking red blood drips down upon a parchment. This fluid is soon revealed instead to be hot wax, used merely to seal an important letter. Yet for a fleeting — and wonderful — moment, the horror audience may believe it has actually returned to the wonderful and bygone world of Hammer Studios since the hot wax resembles that trademark Hammer-styled “fake” blood.
The joke is not only an example of inside baseball, so-to-speak, but an indicator that Burton has fashioned his entire 1999 film as an homage to the output of Hammer. As Michael Atkinson and Laurel Shifrin write in Flickipedia, the director “continues his unique, idiosyncratic, and very personal career project: to re-experience and revivify the toy chest of pop-culture effluvia that sustained him – and many of us – through our ‘Nam era childhoods.” (Chicago Review Press, 2007, page 21.)
Or, as Wesley Morris wrote in The San Francisco Examiner: “what Burton does perhaps better than even Steven Spielberg: transport you to a nook in your childhood, be it around a summer campfire or smack in front of a TV set on a Saturday afternoon.”
In the visual language of a Hammer Studios film then, the impressive Sleepy Hollow asks its audience to contemplate the nature of life on Heaven and Earth. Is science the key to understanding it? Or is there room, yet, for magic in this world? In scenes both lyrical and poetic (particularly those involving Lisa Marie as Ichabod’s mother), Burton’s Sleepy Hollow seeks the answer.
Less deliberately oddball than some of Burton’s earlier works but nonetheless highly-stylized from a visual standpoint, Sleepy Hollow thus emerges as one of the top “tier” films in the director’s canon; a bedtime story that maintains, even today, the kind of timeless, classic qualities of the best ghost stories.
“It is truth, but truth is not always appearance.”
The rational, scientific constable Ichabod Crane (Johnny Depp) is sent by his superior (Christopher Lee) to the Dutch farming community of Sleepy Hollow to investigate a series of grisly murders allegedly caused by a spectral avenger called the Headless Horseman (Christopher Walken).
When he arrives, Crane begins to uncover evidence of witchcraft in the Van Tassel family, even as he grows close to Baltus Van Tassel’s (Michael Gambon) daughter, Katrina (Christina Ricci). The specter of witchcraft strikes a chord with the cowardly Ichabod, however, as Crane’s mother (Marie) was also witch.
As the mystery of Sleepy Hollow deepens, Crane wonders if someone is summoning a dark, malevolent spirit for monetary gain, and if so, who it could be. He realizes that to learn that answer, Crane must not depend on science alone, but open himself to the possibilities suggested by his mother; the possibilities of magic.
“The millennium is almost upon us…”
Although based very loosely on the 1820 short story The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Washington Irving (1783-1859), Tim Burton’s Sleepy Hollow serves instead as a dedicated tribute to the output of Hammer Studios, England’s pre-eminent exporter of horror during the late 1950s and 1960s.
Not only does this film feature familiar horror actors from the Hammer stable, including Christopher Lee and Michael Gough, it is also, like the works of that studio, largely set-bound, and it embodies a similar, heavy sense of Gothic romanticism.
In other words, Sleepy Hollow drips with atmosphere, depicts strange supernatural rituals, and generates extreme emotions in its dramatis personae and audience, namely terror. Writing in Entertainment Design, production designer John Calhoun reported that, from the outset of production on Sleepy Hollow, director Burton reported how he desired to “evoke the Hammer Film style,” one that was notably “artifice-heavy.” (“Headless in Sleepy Hollow,” November 1999, page 38.)
Accordingly, the autumnal woods surrounding the town of Sleepy Hollow evoke Hammer’s visual tradition, dominated by fog, mist and craggy, ancient-seeming trees that could come to life at any moment. Janet Maslin in The New York Times wrote persuasively of the film’s canvas: “Using a color palette more often associated with stories of the gulag, “Sleepy Hollow” creates a landscape so daunting that even a large tree bleeds.” Indeed, the artificial forest seems to reflect the very spirit of the film, of a world brought to life by the competing forces of science (the artifice of the production design) and magic (the special effects visualizations of the Hessian.)
Crane has put his faith in technology and reason, and believes that “to detect the guilty” science is the best tool. He disdains the fact that he seems to be the only one “who can see that to solve crimes, we must use our brains, assisted by reason, using up-to-date scientific techniques.”
That battle between the two ways (rational science and irrational mysicism) is the real thematic terrain of the film.
Almost immediately, Crane’s strategy is tested, and he encounters a world of very real superstition and witchcraft. Crane rejects these principles at first, in part because his Mother was a witch (a good witch…) and he lost her in a painful, violent manner to a society which condemns such practitioners. Looking at Crane’s dream sequences involving his mother, they pointedly contrast with the soot-and-industrial look of New York featured in the beginning of the film. The “cherry-blossom-filled reveries” (Interiors: “Here’s Your Head, What’s Your Hurry?” December 1999, page 62) suggest a world beyond reason and natural sciences; one more fully alive than what is depicted in the bleeding forest around the town. The forest there appears so autumnal and brown, I would submit, because magic and witchraft are disappearing from the world: it is their final autumn before Ichabod’s way will dominate the human race. Even the (ostensibly happy) end of the film reinforces this idea, with the arrival of Katrina and Ichabod in “modern” New York…a realm of science.
Interestingly, Sleepy Hollow does– at least partially — seem to view the loss of magic and the victory of science as a loss for mankind.
Though whip smart, knowledgeable and clever, Ichabod suppresses his own “natural gift,” the one handed down to him by his mother: his capacity for belief in something greater than the resources and wonders of man’s mind. In this sense, one might gaze at Sleepy Hollow as a tale of one man’s spiritual, even religious, awakening. Crane comes to see that he can’t depend on science alone, but also must understand the rules of magic; on his instinctive sense of wonder.
And like many a Tim Burton hero, The Headless Horseman in Sleepy Hollow is another outcast, but in this case, one who fits explicitly into the movie’s dialogue about nature vs. supernature. The Hessian is doomed to walk the Earth at the behest of an evil mistress, and Sleepy Hollow involves the freeing of this spirit and outcast. Thus the Hessian serves as almost a mirror for Crane. The Headless Horseman is a man who exists in a purely supernatural (rather than scientific) state and must be put to rest; to the clinical, empirical state of death, upon which his release hinges. His release rests in science, or release from the supernatural, in other words Together, Crane and the Hessian make an interesting duo. Two sides of the same coin, perhaps.
Uniquely, Ichabod’s journey may also be a reflection of how cinema (particular the horror cinema) had grown cold and clinical in the 1990s. This was the era of 1,001 police procedural horrors, roughly (The Silence of the Lambs, Jennifer 8, Se7en, Kiss the Girls, Resurrection, Copycat, The Bone Collector, etc.) and such films reduced the great act of “monster”-hunting to a science, a forensic science.
Ichabod is clearly in the mold of such CSI-styled investigators (nay a progenitor of their mold…) and yet in the end it is not forensics that saves the day in Sleepy Hollow…it is the investigator’s natural gift, his ability to countenance magic. One might easily see this conceit as Burton’s embedded critique of the increasingly stale take on horror at the turn of the millennium. With its beautiful fairy tale forests and deliberate Hammer Studio artifice, Sleepy Hollow seems a deliberate and almost elegeic throwback to an era of imagination and theatricality instead of gritty psychological realism.
At one point in the film, it is noted that Crane is actually “bewitched by reason,” and that comment perfectly captures the film’s questioning spirit, the idea that science and belief must walk hand-in-hand in the human equation. And so even though Katrina fears that Crane possesses no heart (only a mind), the same cannot be said for this lush, gorgeous, Tim Burton film…undeniably one of his finest.
Next Week: Big Fish.